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General stuff



These pages
were created
by Jouni Maho.


The distribution of Africa's new languages
click for full size image

(For a detailed legend,
see ch. 4.1 in the EBALL manual.)

"New" African languages

In Africa, there are several "new" languages or language varieties, e.g. some that could, for historical reasons, be defined as immigrant languages (especially various European and Indian languages), many of which have developed into so-called pidgins, creoles, youth jargons, etc.

(Pidgins/creoles based on indigenous African languages no longer appear on this page. Intead, they have been moved to pages where they now appear together with their closest linguistic relatives.)

Note also that some languages have been given pages of their own. In particular, this concerns materials relating to Afrikaans, English, French, Portuguese and related pidgins/creoles.


Angogo, Rachel M. 1980. An inventory of KiSwahili-related pidgins and creoles. Ba Shiru: a journal of African languages and literature, v. 10, p. 22-28.

Hancock, Ian F. 1981. Repertoire des langues pidgins et creoles. In: Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne (ed. by Jean Perrot), v. 2, p. 631-648. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

Heine, Bernd. 1970. Status and use of African lingua francas. (Translated from German.) Afrika-Studien der IFO-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Bd 49. Weltforum-Verlag.

Heine, Bernd. 1978. Some generalizations on African-based pidgin languages. Afrika und Übersee, 61 (3/4), p. 219-229.

Holm, John A. 1988/89. Pidgins and creoles, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press.

Kiessling, Roland; Mous, Maarten. 2004. Urban youth languages in Africa. Anthropological linguistics, 46 (3), p. ?.

Maho, Jouni Filip. 2001. African languages country by country: a reference guide. 5th edition. Göteborg africana informal series, n. 1. Department of Oriental and African Languages, Göteborg University.

General, comparative, miscellaneous back to top »

The Ethnologue, web edition. SIL International.

Wikipedia has a growing amount of information on various African languages.

Karen Calteaux, 1996
Standard and non-standard African language varieties in the urban areas of South Africa (PDF). Main report for the STANON Research Programme. (ED402752)

Thomas B. Klein, 2006
Segmental typology of African creole languages: examining uniformity, simplification and simplicity (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 36th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Salikoko S. Mufwene, 1999
Les créoles: l'état de notre savoir (PDF). Anthropologie et sociétés, v. 23, p. 149-173.

Afrikaans & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »

See separate page for Afrikaans.

English & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »

See separate page for English.

French & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »

See separate page for French.

German (& related pidgins/creoles) < Europhone back to top »

Dakha Deme, 2005
Langage et origine sociale: les réalisations de +ATR /ø/ des vibrantes de l'allemand chez les étudiants du départment de langues et civilisations germaniques de l'université de Dakar (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, n. 5 (104).

Thomas Keil, 2003
Die postkoloniale deutsche Literatur in Namibia, 1920-2000 (PDF). Dissertation. Universität Stuttgart.

Susanne Mühleisen, 2005
Emil Schwörers 'Kolonial-Deutsch' (1916): sprachliche und historische Anmerkungen zu einem "geplanten Pidgin" im kolonialen Deutsch Südwest Afrika. PhiN (Philologie in Netz), v. 31, p. 30-48.

Michael Omolewa, 1978
The teaching of French and German in Nigerian schools 1859-1959. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 18, p. 379-396.

Melanie Tajnsek, 2000
Sprach- und Schulpolitik als Instrument der Selbstbehauptung einer ethnischen Minderheit: eine Fallstudie anhand der Deutschsprachigen in Namibia (PDF). Dissertation. Ruhr-Universität Bochum.

Italian & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »


Malagasy < Austronesian back to top »

Malagasy links have been moved back to the page for "other" African languages.

"Malawi's New Language" < Bantuphone back to top »

Francis Moto, 2001
Language and societal attitudes: a study of Malawi's 'New language' (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 10, p. 320-343.

Portuguese & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »

See separate page for Portuguese.

Spanish & related pidgins/creoles < Europhone back to top »

Mohamed Abuelata
Un apunte sobre el español en Egipto. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2003.

Trinidad Morgades Besari
Breve apunte sobre el español en Guinea Ecuatorial. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.

Manuela Marín
Julio Tienda (1898-1980) y la enseñanza del español en Marruecos durante el protectorado. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2003.

El Hadji Amadou Ndoye
Le enseñanza del español en Senegal. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.

Sosthène Onomo-Abena, 2001
Les écrivains equato-guinéens et la langue espagnole: construction d'une identité linguistique afro-hispanique. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 11.

Jesús Lasso Rey, María Dolores Jalón
El español en el panorama lingüístico de Namibia. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.

Ana Rowe, Cathy Maree
El lugar del español en un país multilingüe: Sudáfrica. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.

Javier Muñoz Sánches-Brunete
La enseñanza del español en los países del Maghreb: datos generales. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2003.

Ruth Scipione, Lotfi Sayahi, 2005
Consonantal variation of Spanish in northern Morocco (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the second workshop on Spanish sociolinguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

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